The population of Spain in 2011 was 47.2 million people, with a population density of more than 93 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Spain is a markedly urban society as evidenced by the fact that 32% of the population lives in the capitals of the provinces. The main figures are given in the table below.
|Distribution by Age||0-15: 16%|
|Population Density||93.49 inhabitants/km2|
|Working Population by Industry(See more)||Agriculture 4.54%|
|Demographic Composition (See more)||87.81% Spaniards / 12.19% foreign population|
|Religion||72% - Catholic|
|Official Language||Castilian is the official State language. Other Spanish languages also have official status in their respective Autonomous Communities, in accordance with their Charters of Autonomy. (Article 3 of the Constitution)|
Source: National Statistics Institute. Data at January 1, 2011. Municipal Register report. Working population with data from Q4 of 2011.
Variation in working population by industry (%)
Source: National Statistics Institute.
Foreigners resident in Spain by continent of origin
Source: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Figures at September 30, 2011
|Political structure of State||Parliamentary Monarchy|
|Head of State||King Juan Carlos I|
|Prime Minister||Mariano Rajoy Brey, since December 21th|
|Parliament||Lower House (350 members) and Upper House (264 members)|
|Party in power||Popular Party (PP)|
|Territorial organization||Territorially, the State is organized into municipalities, provinces and autonomous communities. There are 17 autonomous communities and two cities (Ceuta and Melilla).|
|European Union||Member State since 1986|
Spain is a dynamic country with an advanced economic model, in which the services sector and industry represent approximately 86% of Spain´s GDP.
|Currency||Euro, divided into 100 cents|
|Real growth in GDP||0.8%*|
|GDP per capita (2008)||23,063 euros|
|Public Accounts||Budget deficit 4.8 % of GDP in 2011***|
* Data GDP until Q3 of 2011
** Aggregate average until December 2011
*** The State recorded a deficit 4.8% until November 20101of Spain's GDP (Bank of Spain)
Source: National Statistics Institute, Bank of Spain.
Trade and investment
In recent years, the rapid growth in imports and exports has made Spain one of the most internationally-oriented countries in the world, with figures for Spanish foreign investment reaching $22,000 million in 20101.
Spain's main trading partners are the 27-nation EU Member States, accounting for 66.4% of total exports and 52.8% of imports, followed by Asia and Africa (respectively accounting for 7.7% and 5.3% of total exports and for 19.8% and 9% of total imports) which have displaced Latin (except in exports) and North America from their traditional role as Spain’s main trade partners outside the EU2.
Spain is one of the most active countries trading goods and services. With regards to the trading of goods, it is ranked 18th in the world as an exporter and 14th as an importer; while in the trading of services it occupies 8th place as an exporter and 14th place as an importer.
The Spanish share in global export and import of goods (Spanish exports/global exports) is 1.6% and 2% respectively. The Spanish share in global export and import of services stands at 3.3% and 2.5%3.
The breakdown by industry of foreign trade is relatively diversified, as can be seen in the following table:
Breakdown of main exports and imports in 2011* (as % of total)
|Capital goods||19.8%||Energy products||21.1%|
|Automobile industry||15.8%||Capital goods||17.8%|
|Chemical products||13.8%||Consumer goods||10.6%|
|Semi-manufactured non-chemical products||12.2%||Automobile industry||10.5%|
|Energy products||7.5%||Semi-manufactured non-chemical products||7.6%|
|Raw materials||2.7%||Durable consumer goods||2.5%|
Durable consumer goods
* Data available at January-November 2011
Source: Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade
With regard to investment, it is worth highlighting the increase in inward investment received since 1996. In recent years, Spain has been one of the main recipients of foreign direct investment. According to the World International Report 2011, in 2010 Spain ranked seventh worlwide in foreign direct investment.
[Graphic being updated]
Source: Bank of Spain
* Data available at January-March 2011
With regard to the graphic above the data by the end of January-November 2011 is the following: Direct Investmen 15.33; Portfolio Investment: -38.63; Total: -23.30 (in € billion).
Spain is ranked 1st in the EU in terms of the number of high-capacity toll roads and highways and 1st in the EU and 2nd worldwide after China, in terms of the number of kilometers of high-speed railway tracks. In addition, it boasts 47 airports and 46 international ports which, when combined with the country´s geostrategic position, make Spain one of the leading hubs for passenger and goods transportation.
Of even greater importance is the Transportation Infrastructure Strategic Plan, with total investments of €248 billion projected for the 2005-2020 period. The table below sets out some of the more noteworthy facts and figures relating to Spain's infrastructure:
|Investment||€248,892 million until 2020|
|Highways||14,262 km (high capacity)|
|Airports||250 airlines at 49 airports|
|Ports||46 international ports|
|Technology||Extensive fiber optic cable network and one of the largest undersea cable and satellite-link networks.|
1 World Investment Report 2011.
2 Data available Jan-Nov. 2011. Source: Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade.
3 Internacional Trade Statistics 2011.
For further information, visit the extended version of our online Guide to Business:
Last updated: 15|10|2012
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